Consequently, channel coding is not only a matter of information theory but also more and more knowledge on efficient parallel hardware architectures and underlying semiconductor technology is required. The component carrier can have a bandwidth of 1. Turbo decoders with low complexity for low processing energy expenditure are to be used that result in minimization of overall energy consumption. In this context, multiprocessor turbo decoders have been recently developed in order to support the increasing flexibility and throughput requirements of emerging applications. The continuous demands on increased spectral efficiency, higher throughput, lower latency and lower energy in communication systems imposes large challenges on appropriate channel coding schemes and their efficient hardware implementation. So far, the transmission of information was assumed to be done via one pair of antennas one on the sender side and one on the receiver side , which means one symbol was sent in each time slot.
Second, these algorithms should have a deterministic dataflow graph that maps to parallel datapaths. The outstanding forward error correction of Turbo-codes made them part of many today's communications standards. The major characteristics of the proposed platform are its flexibility and scalability which make it reusable for all simple and double binary turbo codes of existing and emerging standards. With respect to the interleaver address generation, we propose and analyze a recursive address calculation method. The major challenge is the support of very high code rates and the stringent latency requirements. The key power-saving technique in this work is the use of decoder run-time dynamic reconfiguration for different constraint lengths.
The proposed method completely removes the undesired phase-switching latency by partially overlapping in-ordered and interleaved decoding phases, and as a result, achieves a significant increase of decoding throughput. In this context, intensive research has been conducted to provide flexible turbo decoder targeting high throughput, multi-mode, multi-standard, and power consumption efficiency. For the future it is clearly expected that even higher data rates become necessary. Control channel decoder is constrained by latency budget which impacts buffering as well as power management of modem signal processing chains. This consideration applies to the two main classes of turbo-like codes, i. Compared with Lucent's radix-4 architecture, it increases the throughput by 32% with only a moderate increase in area. Different architecture alternatives and design approaches are explored.
We designed a very low-complexity recursive on-line address generator supporting multiple interleaving patterns, which avoids the interleaver address memory. The Relay Nodes are low power base stations that will provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges, and hot-spot areas and it can also be used to connect to remote areas without fibre connection. The paper presents a high performance turbo decoder. In this paper we explore the Turbo-Decoder design space anew, both under system design and deep-submicron implementation aspects. The first architecture template processes several windows in parallel. Finally, a comparison with similar contributions in the literature has shown that the implemented turbo decoder achieves energy efficiency of 0. In the meantime, the bit level optimization is employed to retime the critical path such that the higher clock frequency can be achieved and message storage size is slightly reduced.
This paper presents a multiple code-rate turbo decoder using the reciprocal dual trellis to improve the hardware efficiency. We developed a novel design methodology for dependable wireless communication systems which exploits the mutual trade-offs of system performance, hardware reliability, and implementation complexity. Select the message type from the drop down combo box 4. Multi standard wireless modems are already becoming more and more important in industry. Therefore, the conventional synchronizers can not synchronize receivers perfectly.
With the ever increasing data rates demanded by customers, architectures that provide interleaving at high throughput become mandatory. This paper provides a rigorous analysis of the requirements for computational hardware and memory at the architectural level based on a tile-graph approach that models the resource-time scheduling of the recursions of the algorithm. For non-contiguous allocation it could either be intra-band, i. The degradation due to errors introduced in different processing stages is presented in the simulation result. To evaluate the performance, the normalization model used in previous section is applied with the justification of removing the effect of scaling factors and. For standard compliant decoders it is impossible to design, or pre-process, the permutation patterns such that conflicts are avoided.
This can be avoided through time sharing between Uu and Un, or having different locations of the transmitter and receiver. . We present an heuristic approach to the design of interleaving architectures based on random graph generation. Carrier Aggregation The most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add more bandwidth. To provide near-optimal error-correcting performance for multi-rate turbo codes and minimize the size of additional memory, a new decoding method is proposed in this paper.
Turbo codes were widely used in 3G mobile communication due to its high error correction capability. We propose a new hardware architecture that can share hardware resources for the two standards. Regarding the interleaver network, it is proven that hardware-efficient butterfly and Bene? In this case, the normalized resource usage of 0. To evaluate the performance, the normalization model used in previous section is applied with the justification of removing the effect of scaling factors and. In this paper, a systematic method for deriving hardware structures for such computation is proposed. The ever increasing data rates motivated by throughput-intensive applications result in higher parallelism of turbo decoder design, rendering the efficient realization of the interleaver a highly challenging work. The problem of constructing the decoder architecture and optimizing it for high speed and low power is formulated in terms of the individual recursion patterns which together form a tile graph according to a tiling scheme.
Aiming at highest area and energy efficiency, this paper presents guidelines for designing Turbo and Viterbi decoder datapaths with minimal widths. The energy efficiency in a 65 nm process node is 0. Thus, there is a strong need for efficient wireless baseband receivers. A fourth main contribution of this thesis work concerns the hardware prototyping. For this, highly punctured Turbo codes with rates up to 0. In modern communications systems the required data rates are continuously increasing.